In a vast and seemingly infinite universe, a still unsolved mystery of physics is the real identity of dark matter.
Dark matter was named for hidden mass revealed when inquiring scientists detected too much gravity in the confines of the Milky Way’s outer reaches. Stars and gas in the halo of our galaxy travel too fast considering the gravitational force of visible matter. Where normal matter dominates, the Sun’s closest planet, Mercury, orbits much faster than outer planets.
Accordingly, where dark matter is found could provide clues on how to discover its true nature.
We know it has a dominating presence in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies, both more densely packed with collections of more ancient low-metal stars, and we know it is more plentiful in stars and gas in the outermost regions of our galaxy, which also contain more ancient stars.
It is not found in planetary nebula, which are not related to planets, but actually contain material left over from dying stars – benign and lifeless matter.
In the context of the universe, dark matter is found within clusters of galaxies, but not in the voids in between. The seeds of such clusters were imaged by the Planck satellite in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which shows leftover radiation from the Big Bang. It represents these filaments of matter-like speckles separated by voids, the primordial filaments developing into clusters of stars, gas and galaxies.
By where it is found, one may actually speculate that dark matter is a virtual byproduct of the compact environments that left these filaments, and perhaps not really a separate independent particle of matter, as its name implies.
In fact, if DM existed right after the big bang, as most physicists believe, maybe it involves energy released in a fraction of a second during a period of phase transition, in this case, like particles popping in and out of existence in energy transfers in a primordial soup of matter, all involved in the Inflation Theory.
In an early Planck time, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light; such a plasma of energy/matter carried in this expanding fabric of space must have included specters we call dark energy and dark matter. It is something about which we can only speculate, perhaps alternatively naming the phenomena primordial black holes,white holes, or both.
In this early environment, baryonic matter and radiation were tied together. Space expanded and densities declined. Matter fell out of the radiation/matter mix with less density; as the EM force was uncoupling from a fundamental force, it interacted with the short-range quantum particles. At the time, it mediated the rampaging more-long-range radiation energy and, in effect, it was dually spanning the quantum and continuous classical gravity in a miasma of soup.
By the time the four forces separated from the fundamental force, the temperature declined to 1015 Kelvin. Light elements assembled into atoms 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when temperature fell to 3000K. Could dark matter have emerged from this now-coagulating and cooling soup, setting the stage for star formation?
Perhaps similar processes sustain dark matter in a contemporary universe fraught with such interaction, but now four separate forces are long established: the strong, the weak, electromagnetic, and gravity.
Still pursuing dark matter as an independent particle, brute-force-type particle smashing, like that in the Large Hadron Collider, is coming up empty-handed. In addition, the Sanford Underground Research Facility, a mile underground, hasn’t found a trace of dark matter as a distinct particle either.
Maybe DM is a derivative of normal matter, but only in a dynamic environment. Such speculation does have evidence coming from other observations and studies which have never posed DM as a byproduct of normal matter’s dynamic interactions. Even some theories do tend to support such speculation.
Do the forces of energy given off by plasma, a fourth stage of matter (in fact, about 99% of normal matter in the universe) replicate and restructure in the form of dark matter? Almost all of that plasma is present where scientists speculate that dark matter exists, generally in the vicinity of space among stars, the solar wind, interstellar space, quasars, and galactic radiation sources.
Plasma is a good conductor of electricity and has been known to spawn particles. Laboratory evidence shows that the production of fusion in Stellarators and Tokomaks also generates what is called anapole particles (mentioned as a candidate for dark matter by two Princeton scientists), this done in a toroidal motion. Anapole moments have also been discovered in the magnetic structure of the nuclei of the Cesium-133 isotope and through superconductor experiments.
The large-scale magnetic field structure of our galaxy is another curiosity. Even various features of the magnetic field structure have been identified, including toroidal, large-scale, small-scale and random. Magnetic fields are perceived in the non-visible EM spectrum, connected to form a global field structure, but more study of that connection is needed.
Accordingly, the interactive dynamics of the four forces operating in the wake of super-massive-black-holes at the center of galaxies seem to have a peculiar effect on a galaxy’s resident plasma. Most of the energy sources are enmeshed in a state of rotation and circular motion – from the scope of light-years down to Planck-size – , interactions that seem to wed quantum field theory and general relativity.
Jeremy England, a MIT physicist, derived a mathematical formula that showed that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (the sun or chemical fuel, for example), it will often restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. Such a formula could conceptually explain the production of dark matter, a creation which facilitates the process of energy dissipation.
This process might fit into England’s formula of inanimate clumps of matter, certainly in a riled state of fusion and EM turbulence, one which might replicate an external particle form, restructured in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. Anapoles have mass, disburse gravitational waves, are not polar, emit no radiation, and carry their own anti-particle. In this form and state, they are not visible.
Combine the parity-violating moments of fusion, roiling in the swirling arm of galactic force sweeping along star systems around a super-massive black hole. They are – in principle — the conditions described by Philip Marcus of the University of California, Berkeley. In “Physical Review Letters” in 2013, he described “vortices in turbulent fluids” that spontaneously replicated themselves by drawing energy from shear in the surrounding fluid.
Also in “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,” Michael Breener, a professor of applied mathematics and physics at Harvard, presented theoretical models and simulations of microstructures that self-replicate. By “optimizing interaction energies to destabilize kinetic traps,” and in a finite heat trap, clusters of specially coated particles dissipate energy by roping nearby spheres into forming identical clusters.
So in the end, is dark matter only one instance of capturing energy from an environment and dissipating that energy? As living things we dissipate it as heat. Dark Matter involved in the fusion process allows inanimate atoms to supply energy that sustains living things. In turn, living and inanimate things alike have cycles of life, death and resurrection.
This, of course, only involves theory, but perhaps it has enough feasibility for further study.